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List of Papers and Conference Presentations on Electrolyzed Reduced Water
What is electrolyzed reduced water?
Cytotechnology 40:139-149,2002 Abstract of a paper published in june 2003
Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause irreversible damage to biological Macromolecules, resulting in many diseases. Reduced water (RW) such as Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed reduced water and natural reduced waters like Hita Tenryosui water in Japan and Nordenau water in Germany that are known to improve various diseases, could protect a hamster pancreatic ß cell line, HIT-T15 from alloxan-induced cell damage. Alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, is used to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus in animals. Its diabetogenic effect is exerted via the production of ROS. Alloxan-treated HIT-T15 cells exhibited lowered viability, increased intracellular ROS levels, elevated cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, DNA fragmentation, decreased intracellular ATP levels and lowering of glucose-stimulated release of insulin. RW completely prevented the generation of alloxan-inducedROS, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, decrease of intracellular ATP level, and lowering of glucose-stimulated insulin release, and strongly blocked DNA fragmentation, partially suppressing the lowering of viability of alloxan-treated cells. Intracellular ATP levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were increased by RW to 2-3.5 times and 2-4 times, respectively, suggesting that RW enhances the glucose-sensitivity and glucose response of ß -cells. The protective activity of RW was stable at 4for over a month, but was lost by autoclaving. These results suggest that RW protects pancreatic ß -cells from alloxan -induced cell damage by preventing alloxan-derived ROS generation. RW may be useful in preventing alloxan-induced type 1-diabetes mellitus.

[Abbreviations] BSA:bovine serum albumin, DCF:dichloroflurescein, DCFH-DA:2',7'-dichlorofluorescindiasetate, ELISA:enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay, ERW:electrolyzed-reduced water, HBSS:Hank's balanced salt solution, IDDM:Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IIDM:insulin-independent diabetes mellitus, KRB:Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer, NRW:nature reduced water, ROS:reactive oxygen species, RW:reduced water.
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